胡萝卜能提高视力?关于视力的15点误解

We can probably all recount at least a dozen weird1 and alarming things parents, teachers, and older siblings2 told us about our eyes when we were kids. For instance, we’d bepermanently3 cross-eyed if we didn’t stop making those faces at our brother or we’d go blind from reading in the dark. But maybe, just maybe, we could find redemption by eating lots of carrots. Here are a few common myths and misconceptions.

我们都能回忆起自己小时候,父母、老师和哥哥姐姐们曾经告诉过我们的那些有关视力怪异又吓人的事情。比如,如果我们再继续向哥哥扮鬼脸,以后就会变成斗鸡眼,又或者在黑暗中阅读眼睛会瞎掉。但是,如果我们吃很多很多的胡萝卜,也许我们的眼睛还有救。以下就是关于视力的几个常见的误解和迷思。
胡萝卜能提高视力?关于视力的15点误解
MYTH #1: IF YOU CROSS YOUR EYES, THEY’LL STAY THAT WAY.
误解1:如果你装成斗鸡眼,那么你将一直是斗鸡眼
Crossed eyes occur when your eyes don’t look the same way at the same time. There are six muscles attached to each of our eyes that, guided by signals from the brain, control their movements. When your eyes don’t align4, the brain gets two different images. Over time, this can cause more serious vision issues. That’s a real problem, but it’s not caused by making your eyes cross on purpose for short periods of time.
斗鸡眼只有在你的两只眼睛没有同时看向同一个方向的时候才会出现。我们的每只眼睛周围有六块肌肉,它们由大脑中的信号控制。你的两只眼睛若是没有对齐,那么你的大脑就会得到两幅不同的图像。随着时间的流逝,这会造成更加严重的视力问题。不过你短暂地装一下斗鸡眼并不能达到这种效果。
MYTH #2. EATING CARROTS WILL HELP YOU SEE IN THE DARK.
误解2:吃胡萝卜能增强你的夜间视力
Well, carrots certainly aren’t bad for your eyesight. They contain plenty of beta-carotene, which your body converts into vitamin A, a crucial vitamin for vision. But carrots don’t do anything exceptional for your nighttime vision.
其实胡萝卜对你的视力没有坏处,它们含有丰富的β-胡萝卜素,随后你的身体会将它们变成维他命A,这种维他命对视力至关重要。但胡萝卜无法让你的夜间视力变得超常。
MYTH #3: THE BIGGER YOUR EYES, THE BETTER YOUR EYESIGHT.
误解3:你的眼睛越大,视力越好。
When you’re born, your eyeballs are approximately 16 millimeters in diameter, reaching 24 millimeters as an adult. But your eyes getting larger does not necessarily mean that your vision is getting better. In fact, excessive growth in human eyes can cause myopia, or nearsightedness. If the eyeball is too long, the eye’s lens can’t focus the light in the right part of the retina to process images clearly.
人类刚出生的时候,眼球直径约为16毫米,成年后会达到24毫米。但你的眼睛变大了并不意味着你的视力变强了。事实上,人类眼睛过度增长会造成近视。如果眼球太长,那么眼睛的晶状体就无法将光线聚集在视网膜的正确位置,人类也无法接收到清晰的图像。
MYTH #4: PUPIL DILATION5 OCCURS ONLY IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN LIGHT.
误解4:人眼只有在应对光线变化的时候才会出现瞳孔扩张。
Sexual arousal, solving a complicated mental math problem, fear, and other cognitive6 and emotional events can provoke changes in pupil size, though the precise reasons why are not yet clearly understood.
我们的情绪和精神状态也会造成瞳孔扩张,性唤起、解决了复杂的数学问题和恐惧等都会让瞳孔大小发生变化,不过人类并未完全了解其中的原因。
MYTH #5: UV RAYS CAN ONLY DAMAGE EYES WHEN THE SUN IS SHINING.
误解5:只有阳光灿烂的时候紫外线才能损害我们的眼睛。
Even on cloudy and foggy days, ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause eye damage. Years of exposure can increase your risk of developing cataracts7.
即便在多云和大雾天气,紫外线也会伤害我们的眼睛,多年持续下来会增大你患白内障的风险。
MYTH #6: WEARING GLASSES TOO MUCH CAN MAKE YOUR EYESIGHT WORSE.
误解6:戴眼镜越久近视越深。
Giving the correct prescription8 “reduces the progression of myopia.”
戴度数合适的眼镜会让“近视度数增长变慢”。
MYTH #7: READING IN DIM LIGHT WILL DIMINISH YOUR EYESIGHT.
误解7:在昏暗的灯光下阅读会损害视力
While reading in semi-darkness may put a temporary strain on your eyes, it’s not going to permanently damage your eyesight.
在昏暗的灯光下阅读会暂时让你的眼睛用力过度,但不会永久损害你的视力。
MYTH #8: IF YOUR PARENTS HAVE BAD EYESIGHT, YOU WILL, TOO.
误解8:视力不好会遗传。
You might, of course, because some eye problems are genetic9. But there’s no guarantee that we will develop the same vision impairments as our parents. One study found that if both parents are myopic11, there’s a 30 to 40 percent chance that the child is. If only one parent is myopic, the child has a 20 to 25 percent chance, and it’s down to 10 percent for kids with non-myopic parents.
有些眼睛问题会遗传,但这并不意味着我们视力受损的程度会与父母一致。有研究发现如果父母双方是近视,那么他们孩子近视的概率为百分之三十至百分之四十。如果父母仅一人近视,那么孩子近视的概率为百分之二十至百分之二十五。若父母双方均不近视,那么孩子近视的概率为百分之十。
MYTH #9: TOO MUCH SCREEN TIME WILL DESTROY YOUR EYESIGHT.
误解9:盯屏幕时间过久会损害视力。
More and more people are complaining of symptoms like dry, irritated eyes after prolonged periods of screen time. The American Optometric Association (AOA) defines this group of symptoms collectively as Computer Vision Syndrome—or Digital Eye Strain—which can be furtherexacerbated12 by trying to focus on small screens such as tablets or phones. The AOA recommends following the 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes, take a 20-second break to look at something 20 feet away.
越来越多人长时间盯着屏幕之后会眼干眼涩,美国眼科协会将这些症状统称为计算机视觉综合症,继续盯着小屏幕会让这种症状加重。美国眼科协会建议人们遵循20-20-20规则:每隔二十分钟,休息二十秒钟,并试图看看20英尺以外的东西。
MYTH #10: THE RIGHT “VITAMIN COCKTAIL13” CAN PREVENT VISION DECLINE.
误解10:正确的“维他命鸡尾酒”能够防止视力下降。
According to Harvard researchers, vitamins may help slow the progression of macular degeneration, but for people not already suffering from the disease, preventative use of such vitamins didn’t appear to make a significant difference.
哈佛的研究人员指出,维他命也许能够减缓黄斑退化的过程,但对于没啥毛病的人来说,用这类维他命预防并没有什么效果。
MYTH #11: DYSLEXIA IS LINKED TO VISION PROBLEMS.
误解11:阅读障碍与视力问题有关。
A recent study from Bristol and Newcastle Universities in the UK found that children with dyslexia were no more likely than others to suffer from common vision problems.
英国布里斯托尔和纽卡斯尔大学最近的研究发现,有阅读障碍的儿童患有眼部疾病的几率并不比其他孩子高。
MYTH #12: IF YOU DON’T TREAT LAZY EYE WHEN YOU’RE A SMALL CHILD, YOU’LL HAVE IT FOREVER.
误解12:弱视不从小开始治疗,就再也治不好了。
While doctors say that the sooner it’s treated the better, there are an increasing number of remedies that can help adults as well.
虽然医生说越早治疗越好,但其实随着科技的发展也有越来越多的技术能够帮助弱视的成年人。
MYTH #13: BLIND PEOPLE SEE ONLY DARKNESS.
误解13:盲人看到的只有一片黑暗。
Only 18 percent of people who have visual impairments are totally blind. Most are able todifferentiate14 between light and dark.
只有百分之十八视力严重受损的人永久失明,大部分盲人能够区分光明和黑暗。
MYTH #14: HUMAN VISION IS THE SAME IN SPACE AS IT IS ON EARTH.
误解14:人类在地球和在太空中的视力一样。
Actually, NASA scientists have found that space can impair10 our vision, though they still aren’t sure why.
NASA发现,在太空中我们的视力会受损,但原因不明。
MYTH #15: PEOPLE WHO ARE COLORBLIND CAN’T SEE COLOR.
误解15:色盲的人看不到色彩。
It’s quite rare for someone not to see color at all. It’s more common for color blind individuals to have difficulty differentiating15 between certain colors, like red and green, or blue and yellow. And while color blindness is far more common in males than females, it does affect a small percentage of women.
很少有人完全看不到色彩,色盲中较为常见的是人们难以区分特定的颜色,比如红绿和黄蓝。虽然色盲在男性群体中更为常见,但依旧有少数女性深受其扰。
Vocabulary
cataract: 白内障
macular degeneration: 黄斑退化;黄斑部病变
dyslexia: 阅读障碍
重点词汇:
1 weird   [wɪəd]    
adj.古怪的,离奇的;怪诞的,神秘而可怕的
参考例句:
From his weird behaviour,he seems a bit of an oddity.从他不寻常的行为看来,他好像有点怪。
His weird clothes really gas me.他的怪衣裳简直笑死人。
2 siblings  ['sɪblɪŋz] 
n.兄弟,姐妹( sibling的名词复数 )
参考例句:
A triplet sleeps amongst its two siblings. 一个三胞胎睡在其两个同胞之间。 来自《简明英汉词典》
She has no way of tracking the donor or her half-siblings down. 她没办法找到那个捐精者或她的兄弟姐妹。 来自时文部分
3 permanently   ['pɜ:mənəntlɪ]   
adv.永恒地,永久地,固定不变地
参考例句:
The accident left him permanently scarred.那次事故给他留下了永久的伤疤。
The ship is now permanently moored on the Thames in London.该船现在永久地停泊在伦敦泰晤士河边。
4 align   [əˈlaɪn]   
vt.使成一线,结盟,调节;vi.成一线,结盟
参考例句:
Align the ruler and the middle of the paper.使尺子与纸张的中部成一条直线。
There are signs that the prime minister is aligning himself with the liberals.有迹象表明首相正在与自由党人结盟。
5 dilation   [daɪ'leɪʃn]   
n.膨胀,扩张,扩大
参考例句:
Time dilation works both ways. 时间膨胀在两方面都起作用。 来自辞典例句
The ciliary body is an anterior dilation of the choroid at the level of the lens. 晶状体是脉络膜石晶状体平面上向前扩大的部分。 来自辞典例句
6 cognitive  [ˈkɒgnətɪv]   
adj.认知的,认识的,有感知的
参考例句:
As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
7 cataracts  ['kætərækts]   
n.大瀑布( cataract的名词复数 );白内障
参考例句:
The rotor cataracts water over the top of the machines. 回转轮将水从机器顶上注入。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
Cataracts of rain flooded the streets. 倾盆大雨弄得街道淹水。 来自辞典例句
8 prescription  [prɪˈskrɪpʃn] 
n.处方,开药;指示,规定
参考例句:
The physician made a prescription against sea- sickness for him.医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
The drug is available on prescription only.这种药只能凭处方购买。
9 genetic  [dʒəˈnetɪk]   
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
It’s very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
10 impair   [ɪmˈpeə(r)]   
v.损害,损伤;削弱,减少
参考例句:
Loud noise can impair your hearing.巨大的噪音有损听觉。
It can not impair the intellectual vigor of the young.这不能磨灭青年人思想活力。
11 myopic   [maɪ'ɒpɪk]    
adj.目光短浅的,缺乏远见的
参考例句:
The Government still has a myopic attitude to spending.政府在开支问题上仍然目光短浅。
Myopic views could be potentially damaging for us.目光短浅会给我们带来严重的后果。
12 exacerbated  [ɪgˈzæsəˌbeɪtid]     
v.使恶化,使加重( exacerbate的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
The symptoms may be exacerbated by certain drugs. 这些症状可能会因为某些药物而加重。
The drugs they gave her only exacerbated the pain. 他们给她吃的药只是加重了她的痛楚。 来自《简明英汉词典》
13 cocktail   [ˈkɒkteɪl]   
n.鸡尾酒;餐前开胃小吃;混合物
参考例句:
We invited some foreign friends for a cocktail party.我们邀请了一些外国朋友参加鸡尾酒会。
At a cocktail party in Hollywood,I was introduced to Charlie Chaplin.在好莱坞的一次鸡尾酒会上,人家把我介绍给查理·卓别林。
14 differentiate  [ˌdɪfəˈrenʃieɪt]   
vi.(between)区分;vt.区别;使不同
参考例句:
You can differentiate between the houses by the shape of their chimneys.你可以凭借烟囱形状的不同来区分这两幢房子。
He never learned to differentiate between good and evil.他从未学会分辨善恶。
15 differentiating  [ˌdifəˈrenʃieitɪŋ]   
[计] 微分的
参考例句:
They succeed in differentiating the most commodity-like products. 在最通用的日用产品方面,它们也能独树一帜标新立异。
The simplest and most effective method of differentiating areas is to use different colours. 区别面状要素最简单而又行之有效的办法,是使用不同的颜色。

 

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该日志由 1zanxin 于2016年05月19日发表在 双语阅读 分类下,
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