纳米技术将推动电池行业的发展

A team of American and Chinese researchers has developed a new tool that could aid in the quest for better batteries and fuel cells. Although battery technology has come a long way since Alessandro Volta first stacked metal discs in a “voltaic pile” to generate electricity, major improvements are still needed to meet the energy challenges of the future, such as powering electric cars and storing renewable energy cheaply and efficiently1.

The key to the needed improvements likely lies in the nanoscale, said Jiangyu Li, a professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Washington in Seattle. The nanoscale is a realm so tiny that the movement of a few atoms or molecules2 can shift the landscape. Li and his colleagues have built a new window into this world to help scientists better understand how batteries really work. They describe their nanoscale probe in the Journal of Applied3 Physics, from AIP Publishing.

Batteries, and their close kin4 fuel cells, produce electricity through chemical reactions. The rates at which these reactions occur determine how fast the battery can charge, how much power it can provide, and how quickly it degrades.

Although the material in a battery electrode may look uniform to the human eye, to the atoms themselves, the environment is surprisingly diverse.

Near the surface and at the interfaces5 between materials, huge shifts in properties can occur — and the shifts can affect the reaction rates in complex and difficult-to-understand ways.

Research in the last ten to fifteen years has revealed just how much local variations in material properties can affect the performance of batteries and other electrochemical systems, Li said.

1 efficiently ZuTzXQ

adv.高效率地,有能力地
参考例句:
The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
2 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49
分子( molecule的名词复数 )
参考例句:
The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的结构可在电子显微镜下观察到。
Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反应堆里,大分子裂变为小分子。
3 applied Tz2zXA
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
4 kin 22Zxv
n.家族,亲属,血缘关系;adj.亲属关系的,同类的
参考例句:
He comes of good kin.他出身好。
She has gone to live with her husband’s kin.她住到丈夫的亲戚家里去了。
5 interfaces ad63a35ea2ac8a42233e5ac6cb325d34
界面( interface的名词复数 ); 接口(连接两装置的电路,可使数据从一种代码转换成另一种代码); 交界; 联系
参考例句:
If the class needs to be reprogrammed, new interfaces are created. 如果class需要重新程序设计,新的interfaces创建。
Interfaces solve this problem of evolving code. Interfaces解决了代码升级的问题。

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该日志由 1zanxin 于2017年08月03日发表在 杂谈 分类下,
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